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Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Pertumbuhan Dan Perkembangan Anak Usia Dini

Fase perkembangan merupakan suatu proses yang dialami oleh semua orang selama ia masih hidup. Setiap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan yang kompleks adalah hasil dari hereditas atau keturunan dan juga lingkungan. Dalam kehidupan anak terdapat dua proses yang beroperasi yaitu pertumbuhan dan juga perkembangan. Proses pertumbuhan dan perkembangan saling bergantung satu sama lainnya. Kali ini akan dibahas mengenai faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak usia dini. Pertumbuhan merupakan merupakan sebuah proses yang sangat berkaitan dengan perubahan kuantitatif yang ditandai dengan perubahan ukuran dan struktur tubuh. Seorang anak tidak saja tumbuh menjadi besar secara fisik saja, namun ukuran serta struktur organ didalam tubuh dan otak juga akan meningkat. Dengan bertumbuhnya otak, maka anak tersebut akan memiliki kemampuan yang lebih besar untuk belajar, berfikir dan juga untuk mengingat.

Fase perkembangan merupakan suatu proses yang berkaitan erat dengan perubahan kualitatif dan juga kuantitatif. Pada fase perkembangan biasanya ditandai dengan perubahan–perubahan secara psikofisis. Psikofisis didapatkan dari hasil proses pematangan fungsi–fungsi yang bersifat psikis dan juga fisik pada diri anak secara berkelanjutan, serta ditunjang oleh faktor keturunan dan faktor lingkungan melalui proses learning. Dalam masa pertumbuhan, anak-anak memiliki rasa ingin tahu yang besar terhadap lingkungan disekitarnya. Hal ini tentunya dapat menjadi faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak usia dini. Karena faktor inilah yang nantinya akan sangat berpengaruh bagi kehidupan anak tersebut dimasa yang akan datang.

Berikut ini ada beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak usia dini.

  1. Faktor Sebelum Lahir
    Faktor ini bisa dibawa ketika bayi masih berada didalam kandungan, misalnya kekurangan nutrisi pada saat kehamilan. Hal ini akan berdampak besar bagi pertumbuhan serta perkembangan anak.
  2. Faktor Keluarga Atau Keturunan
    Keadaan sosial dan ekonomi keluarga akan dapat mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak juga. Serta kebiasaan dan juga tingkah laku dalam proses merawatnya. Kemudian ras, bila keturunan dari bangsa eropa maka pertumbuhan anaknya cenderung lebih besar daripada orang asia.
  3. Faktor Psikologis
    Ketiga faktor tersebut sangatlah berpengaruh terhadap tumbuh kembang anak itu sendiri, sehingga dalam merawat seorang anak anda harus benar-benar mengetahui faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak.

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